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Garden variety cannabis as bought on the street cannot meet these criteria nor gain regulatory approval in most nations of the world. The Cannabis sativa versus Cannabis indica debate: an interview with Ethan Russo, MD.

The biochemical variability of one chemovar to another is a primary challenge, while unregulated material may harbor pesticide residues, molds, bacteria, or heavy metals that endanger public health. Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Piomelli, D., and Russo, E.

New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents.

With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain.

Short of a biochemical analysis by a certified laboratory employing verified phytocannabinoids standards, the cannabis consumer can have no real idea of the composition or consistency of the product that they purchase.

“Strain names” are eminently malleable, and are as simple to alter as writing a new label to change one to match the most desirable chemovar du jour. doi: 10.1097/010000125688.05091.8f Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Notcutt, W., Langford, R., Davies, P., Ratcliffe, S., and Potts, R. A placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomized withdrawal study of subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis who are receiving long-term Sativex(R) (nabiximols).

Political efforts at legalization in certain American states and various countries will necessitate wrestling with issues of pharmaceutical cannabis preparations as compared to allowable claims in a less regulated market for herbal preparations.

While cannabis is usually thought of in relation to THC content, and its agonistic effects at the CB receptor, it requires emphasis that humans express individual endocannabinoid tone, that may be deficient under certain conditions, as has been suggested in migraine, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (Russo, 2004, 2016a), or alternatively may be excessive in obesity and metabolic syndrome (Kunos, 2007).

An additional requirement is a supply chain that ensures security that it is being distributed to its intended target patients. doi: 10.3109/08958370902748559 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Pope, H.

The most common delivery system, smoking, imposes similar risks: chronic cough, phlegm production, bronchitis, and inhalation of pyrolytic by-products (Tashkin, 2013).

Cannabis inhalation, whether by smoking or vaporizer produces a rapid peak in serum and brain concentrations that maximizes intoxication and possible reinforcement that are risk factors for DAL (Schoedel et al., 2011).

Rather, what is necessary is more complete data on a given chemovar's biochemistry and attributable pharmacology.

One sophisticated approach to the issue combining those quantitative assays with additional subjective data on scent, taste and effects, dubbed Phyto Facts, has recently been described (Giese et al., 2015). doi: 10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00084-8 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Müller-Vahl, K.

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